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Świątynia Horusa w Edfu

Świątynia Horusa w Edfu położona jest w połowie drogi pomiędzy Asuanem a Luksorem. To najlepiej zachowany obiekt kultu w Egipcie, oraz drugi co do wielkości zaraz po Karnaku.

Świątynia ta była miejscem codziennego boskiego kultu, odbywało się tu również wielkie, doroczne święto na cześć Horusa.

Budowę świątyni rozpoczęto w 237 r.p.n.e, zainicjował ją Ptolemeusz III. 180 lat później została ona rozbudowana przez Ptolemeusza XII. Według egipskiej mitologii świątynia powstała w miejscu gdzie Horus stoczył walkę z Setem o władzę nad światem.

Świątynia Horusa w Edfu

Świątynia Horusa w Edfu (foto Argenberg, flickr.com)

Horus był synem Izydy i Ozyrysa, był bogiem płodności przedstawianym z głową sokoła. Do połowy XIX wieku świątynia była całkowicie zasypana piachem, na jej dachu stały natomiast wiejskie budynki. W latach 60 XIX wieku, twórca muzeum egipskiego rozpoczął w Edfu prace wykopaliskowe obecnie możemy podziwiać świątynie niemal w całej okazałości.

Ściany świątyni, kolumny oraz fragmenty sufitu, które się zachowały są ozdobione reliefami, przybliżającymi sceny obrzędowe. Do świątyni dochodzi się od tyłu, jednak jej zwiedzanie najlepiej rozpocząć od pierwszego pylonu, przed którym stoją dwa potężne posągi Horusa wykonane z czarnego granitu.

Za pylonem frontowym znajduje się ogromny dziedziniec otoczony kolumnami z rzeźbionymi kapitelami. We wnętrzu świątyni reliefy na ścianach przedstawiają doroczne Święto Pięknego Spotkania, podczas którego posąg Horusa przenoszono do świątyni Hathor w Denderze aby połączyć rozdzielonych małżonków. Z kolei podczas obchodów święta Nowego Roku posąg Horusa wynoszony był na dach świątyni, aby słońce go ożywiło.

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